Featured Archives | UBCO Bikes, Australia


100% solar charged electric bike hire business

By | Case Study, Featured, News

Here at UBCO, we have always been connected to conservation and tourism. One of our very first test riders was Roy Baker from the Department of Conservation in the central north island of New Zealand, and our first fleet was to Real Journeys in Queenstown.

Now, with the impacts of COVID19 being felt around the world, like many things, travel and tourism is likely to be different moving forward (at least in the short-term). It will be interesting to see where the ‘new normal’ lands and how tourism operators around the world adapt. With many international borders closed, perhaps it will lead to a renewed focus on domestic tourism. Seeing and experiencing your own country.

“As an immigrant (I moved to New Zealand as a 9-year-old), I have never understood why many New Zealanders itch to travel 20,000 miles to holiday when they have barely scratched the surface of Aotearoa. I have traveled extensively in New Zealand and experienced so many facets of this country, yet it feels like I have still only seen a tiny slice.” Timothy Allan, CEO, UBCO.

Just before lock-down started in New Zealand, we filmed an innovative tourism operation based on the offshore island Great Barrier or Aotea. Aotea is a 3-4 hour boat trip, or 30-minute plane ride from Auckland city, situated on the outer edge of the Hauraki Gulf in New Zealand’s only National Marine Park. It is entirely off-grid with over 70% of the land as a protected Conservation Park and the whole island is a Dark Sky Sanctuary.

Motubikes is an electric motorbike hire business that allows visitors to experience Great Barrier island life in a fun, low impact way – with an UBCO 2X2. Large tyres, good suspension and two-wheel drive traction make the UBCO 2X2 the perfect option on the island’s narrow, winding roads and mix of road surfaces. Motubikes aims to be very environmentally sustainable. The entire setup is run out of a shipping container so is compact, with no foundations or other permanent impacts on the land and all 9 bikes (with spare batteries which are easily changed out) are charged entirely by solar power.

Motubikes is the perfect example of a business, that whilst appeals to the international tourism market, is just as viable if domestic travel as the only option for a while. It’s a tourism adventure perfectly suited to those wanting to explore their own country further.

Owner-operator Seagar Clarkson makes sure everyone gets comfortable with the bikes, offers island insights and advice for each visitor based on their level of experience and interests, and then lets people loose to go at their own pace. Silent and simple operation means it is easy to stop anywhere and enjoy the peace and quiet or spin a yarn with locals or other visitors on the way. The fully solar installation and low impact ethos aligns well with the Aotea culture of self-sufficiency and could be the first installation of its kind globally (we are yet to see another fully off-grid system for charging rental vehicles).

Wondering what the future holds for Seagar’s tourism operation? We spoke to Seagar about his plans to get up and running again post COVID19 lockdown.

“To be honest, I’m predicting that we’ll be fairly busy this summer. Great Barrier is on a lot of Kiwi’s bucket lists as a corner of this paradise they haven’t been to yet. And with restricted travel, the island will be very appealing – beautiful beaches, forest and oceans makes this a pretty special island getaway. All that’s needed is a sense of adventure.”

Seagar started the business as a way of being able to live and work on the Island. With surfing, diving, fishing and general outdoorsy opportunities abound, he wanted to do something that would enable him to make the most of the place he loves.

“We are super impressed with Seagar’s set up. A totally self-contained station with a fully solar-powered fleet of bikes. That’s transferrable as a business model to locations all over the world. Low impact, low cost, epic experience.” Timothy Allan, UBCO.

And that’s exactly what Seagar has set his sights on, particularly in a world that is looking closely at mitigating impacts of high tourism numbers. Future plans include similar setups around the country or even throughout the Pacific and helping other tourism ventures who may be interested in setting up their own operations based on the proven Motubikes model. As Seagar points out, “All this idea needs is some sun and an awesome location to explore.”

“For me, Motubikes is the perfect lifestyle business, and also a way I believe the future should be looking at heading. Battery and solar technology is good and improving rapidly, it’s great fun and there are very real environmental benefits – not just by going electric but also going smaller, lighter and using less resources than the traditional and often unnecessary car. The ideal scenario would be to hands-on run the business during the summer, while travelling and helping others set up their operations in the off-season, supporting them all year round.” Seagar Clarkson.

Keen for a trip to Great Barrier Island? Seagar generally runs Motubikes during the extended summer months (starting at Labour Weekend at the end of October) but bikes are available for hire all year round. www.motubikes.co.nz

Watch our Motubikes Video Case Study here.

2020 FRX1 Electric Trail Bike now available for pre-order

By | Featured, News

Fast emerging as a world leader in the off road electric vehicle space, we’ve just released the latest part of our product and technology platform, the FRX1 Electric Trail Bike.

The FRX1 is built for off-road riding, whether you’re shredding the trail, or working hard on a hill country farm. Previewed at AIM Expo in the US last year with two options including pedal assist, the team at UBCO have worked hard to refine the design into a no compromise motorbike specifically for off road use. The all new FRX1 is now ready for pre-order and should be available ex production mid-late 2020.

“The emerging market for a lightweight electric trail bike is really new category we are very excited about. It blends the agility of a mountain bike and the power of a motocross bike. It will attract new riders with its lightweight accessible design and ease of use.” – Ethan Ralston, CEO, UBCO US

Weighing in at only 132lbs/60kg, the bike is built on a lightweight, 1 inch, tubular 7027 alloy frame. The liquid-cooled brushless motor dynamically delivers a top speed of 50mph/80km/h. Electric drive train also means it’s a proper cheater – with a twist throttle and no clutch, it makes intense trail riding a breeze.

The FRX1 runs on a 50V Lithium-ion 2.2kWh battery pack and delivers an estimated range of 100km which can be recharged in 3-5 hours using a standard socket. The adjustable regenerative braking system provides brilliant descent control on hills and banks the power gains.

It fits neatly into the UBCO application and communication environment giving over the air updates and telematics alongside its stable mate the 2X2.

“The FRX1 is an important step toward our full off road electric vehicle platform, it provides another level of performance and choice in our range. We have customers who now have 2 generations of 2X2, and it is pretty exciting that they can now add a true performance trail bike to their fleet” UBCO CEO, Timothy Allan

Check out the Digital Trends review featuring Ethan Ralston being interviewed on DT Daily.

New urban style: UBCO | 3 Wise Men Collaboration

By | Featured, News

With a perfect merging of functional design and fashion style, our collaboration with New Zealand Fashion brand 3 Wise Men has resulted in an urban update for our UBCO 2×2. Watch out cities of the world!

While we’ve won a number of design awards, the UBCO 2×2 has unashamedly worn its ‘utility’ heritage with pride. Available in one colour (white) with a rugged all-weather fitout that can cope with all kinds of terrain. But all that is now set to change, with the our team working with the team at 3 Wise Men (3WM) to create a limited edition co-branded urban bike and capsule collection.

The UBCO 3WM bike could be the most stylish urban transport option for 2020.

3WM created a capsule collection of garments and accessories that can be worn on the bike, or at any occasion where the 3 Wise Men man just wants smart casual style.

“We love the UBCO 2×2’s Kiwi essence and its heritage. In many ways it is like the 3 Wise Men brand itself, being born of the desire to provide honest, reliable apparel, that can keep a man looking stylish and on his game throughout the business day.” – Richard Miles, 3 Wise Men founder.

Here at UBCO, we’re incredibly excited by what 3 Wise Men has done with the capsule range and our design team have been able to create a bike that matches the slick urban style of their collection. Our team have been able to retain the essential values of the bike; utility, reliability and sustainability, but blend it with an effortless urban style that is instantly recognisable and desirable. We can see real interest internationally for both the bike and the apparel.

The stunning midnight blue, black and leather UBCO x 3 Wise Men bike plus clothing range and accessories was launched on November 1, with the full collection featuring at the UBCON19 conference in Queenstown where it was shown to the entire international team, stakeholders and network.

You can view the bike and the clothing range in selected 3 Wise Men stores nationwide.

“Our mantra is that we ‘only work with good buggers’ and this is a critical part of the 3 Wise Men way. The team at UBCO definitely met our ‘good buggers’ test and we’re proud to partner with them.” Richard Miles

A sentiment shared by the team here.

2020 Product Range – Welcome to the family

By | Featured, News

If the adventure capital of the world, Queenstown, was the perfect place to launch our new product range, UBCON19 was the perfect time to do it. With distributors, dealers and partners from around the world attending this annual event, excitement was high as we unveiled the latest additions to our product family.

Here at UBCO, our goal is to enable people to do inspiring stuff. Inspirational journeys, exploring our planet, saving our parks, working smarter and safer. People want a better world, and we want our products to help people make a difference in it. This is what drives what we do, and the thinking behind our latest release of product.

The Product Platform

Our focus has been on developing a complete product platform which enables our customers to power their purpose. By providing a range of vehicles, power supplies, accessories and subscription software, we are delivering an integrated product set that leverages the benefit of modern electric drive and battery technology without compromise, this is the biggest single release of product in the company’s history and represents 2 years of work from the whole team.

We launched the following at UBCON19 in Queenstown:

  • Two variants of the 5th Generation 2×2 Utility Bike;
  • 3 variants of the KXH Portable Power System at 40, 50 and 60 Ah;
  • The Freeride trail bike FRX1;
  • A limited edition UBCO 3 Wise Men Urban 2×2 – with a complete capsule range of clothing and accessories from 3 Wise men;
  • Fully integrated telematics for both 4th and 5th Generation 2×2 enabling advanced individual and fleet management;
  • UBCO Journeys – a Docked Ridesharing business targeting tourism locations globally.

This continues to support the commercial growth in our business (we recently moved past 100 dealers globally). With production scaling to meet demand and new appointments in engineering, and supply chain in both New Zealand and Asia we’re hitting our stride and then some!

Introducing the 2020 2×2 Utility Bike

The UBCO 2×2 has had 4 generations in use, and the 5th generation sees a huge range of advancements delivered through the introduction of two new models. Both bikes share a common new generation drive train and power system, vehicle management system, telematics, control clusters, frame and structure, significantly enhancing the application utility of both bikes.

CPO Tom Hayward led the team and provided an insight into their development.

“These new bikes are the culmination of 18 months of iterative development and we are stoked with the new 2×2. It delivers on so many areas where we have learnt from our customers and users and it is satisfying to see the dealer and distributor responses to the new products” – Tom Hayward

2x2ADV – The Adventure Bike

The 2×2 Adventure Bike continues our dual-purpose tradition with full road compliance in Australasia, United States and Europe. This bike packs a full portable power supply for those adventures on- or off-road. Its high spec is targeted at a recreational customer. An urban adventure today, an off-road adventure tomorrow, if you have adventure running through your veins, this is the bike for you.

2x2WK – The Work Bike

An unashamed return to UBCO’s roots. This pure off-road work horse is for the farmer, hunter, property owner and outdoors person. Simplified to its essence rendered in all black, out of the box with lever guards and full off-road tires. The 2×2 Work Bike is ready for a hard day’s work and the perfect machine for getting the job done. This is the lightest and simplest 2×2 to date.

KXH Portable Power System

This is a new product range for UBCO. Providing external power on the go.

Portable power has been at the core of the 2×2 modular design since the outset with the power accessible off the console.  2020 sees this become a completely stand-alone product capable of working both inside and outside the vehicle.

This new product comes in a rugged exo-frame to match its applications in the real world with multiple directions to carry and use.  With 12v and 5v ports out it can power a wide range of your devices with a largest total capacity of 60Ah. The Exo frame enables it to be carried easily and attached to the bike, the garage or your vehicle.

The KXH doubles as the power supply of the 2×2 which means you can travel into your work or adventures and then use the portable power supply with ease. Effectively providing on demand power like a generator. It can be easily removed from its protective frame and placed into the bike.

The new cell structure design focuses on safety and reliability with a battery management system designed with advanced data recording, communication and monitoring features. It has charger detect, which means the bike knows when it is plugged in so cannot operate when charging and comes standard with a battery. Lock provides piece of mind when bike is parked up.

The KX3.0 (in the Exo-Frame) will be available for purchase separately.


Due to market in 2020 is the FRX1. Whether you’re taking on the local tracks, or working in serious hill country, the FRX1 is one of the new wave of lightweight free ride trail bikes. No compromise on power but delivering it in a very lightweight envelope.

“The FRX1 is targeted at the mainstream customer who would not traditionally have ridden a heavy motorcross bike, but will equally appeal to the experienced rider delivering a new riding format that will surprise ” Justin Pagirys

UBCO 3 Wise Men – Limited Edition Bike

A clever collaboration between two kiwi companies. We’ve collaborated with leading menswear company 3 Wise Men to create an urban bike to ‘Move Beautifully’. This slick design features a huge range of customisations including a handcrafted leather seat, new deep midnight paint job, leather battery belt, tan diagonally patterned pillow grips and black drop mirrors, new machined polycarbonate headlight lense, leather key ring, and even a special rack for the canvas leather satchel that comes with each bike.

Richard Miles team at 3 Wise Men created a smart urban range including Waxed Cotton Quilted Jacket, a Range of Shirts, Merino/Coolmax Jumper, Jeans, Satchel, Wallet, Bill Fold and Key ring. These are now available for purchase online and at selected 3 Wise Men stores.  5 limited edition bikes will be arriving in store from December in New Zealand.

And stay tuned. This bike is so great we are looking at extending it into production to deliver to our distribution partners globally.


UBCO’s engineering team have developed an innovative integrated telematic control unit (TCU) that seamlessly works with the proprietary Vehicle Management System (VMS). Through a 9-Axis Accelerometer, Gyro, GPS, GSM the UBCO vehicle platform can now integrate into any telemetry system globally for advanced fleet management and control. Rob Beck, UBCO CTO has been instrumental in the architecture and development of the whole telematic solution at UBCO.

“This brings a lot of threads that have been under development together to give a full IOT solution for the whole UBCO Product Platform” – Rob Beck

UBCO Journeys

Leveraging the TCU, Journeys is a new business targeting the destination tourism market. Our new Rideshare platform was developed in conjunction with the team at Kwikli in Auckland, led by Rushabh Trivedy and his brother Prashant.

The Journey has always been a part of our DNA, and UBCO Journeys enables people to experience the freedom of riding in amazing places around the world from the urban to outdoor environment.

The first pilot container will be commissioned in New Zealand and be operational by January 2020. Phil Harrison from global sustainability leader Anthesis is stoked to be helping to drive the concept forward with the help of the Anthesis Venture Investment into Journeys. “As a fast-growing global sustainability company, we are partnering with leading sustainable technology companies and we see UBCO as one of these, being here for the release has emphasized how innovative they are, and we are excited to be partnering with the UBCO Team”.

UBCO FRX1 in action

FRX1 Free Ride Trail Bike – In our words

By | Featured, News

UBCO has maintained a Henry Ford like focus on a single product, the 2×2. The joke has been, you can have any colour you like, as long as it is black and white. But as we have matured as a company and as the product platform has evolved, our focus is now on delivering the ultimate off road electric vehicle platform. To achieve this in an acceptable timeline, we realise we can’t do it on our own.

Working with other innovative companies and people has always been our mode of operation, so when the opportunity arose to work with Neematic the choice was easy. The bike that the team have developed has obvious visual connections to the UBCO visual DNA with its white exo-frame and black body. It is also a well resolved product that rides beautifully.

We believe the market for this new take on a Trail Bike will be huge, attracting new riders with the light weight and ease of use coupled with plenty of power. Many will find moving over from a mountain bike with no motorcycle riding experience a breeze.

Neematic was formed by a dedicated group of designers, engineers and entrepreneurs based in Lithuania. Knowing little about the area I went looking, Lithuania is a country and the southernmost of Europe’s Baltic states, a former Soviet bloc nation bordering Poland, Latvia and Belarus. Its capital, Vilnius, near Belarus’ border, is known for its medieval Old Town. It also has Gothic, Renaissance and baroque architecture, and 18th-century cathedral built on a pagan temple site. Hilltop Gediminas’ Tower, a symbol of the city and the nation, offers sweeping views.

I visited the Team at their base, and my take, is that it is a modern country with a fascinating mix of old and contemporary history, even with some super cool brutalist architecture among the beautiful older parts of town. The people I met were motivated, smart and down to earth. A perfect fit for us.

Riding the bike for the first time was in a forest in Vilnius a tick from the town centre. It felt solid and sure footed on the first ride but I was not prepared to give it full wind on a forest trail. It took 3 separate rides to feel in tune to really pin it, but when I did, boy did it respond. Climbing and descending anything with ease. The pedals (Sure to be contentious) provide an amazing ability to shift the weight of the bike in both ascent and descent, which gives it real agility.

UBCO FRX1 in action

The FRX1 is a logical extension of the UBCO product range and is the start of our extension into other product categories. Which include portable power and 4 wheel Utility Vehicles. We have worked on our product roadmap since inception and are starting to build this out to deliver the range of elements within it.

UBCO Product Strategy

We are excited to work with the Neematic Team, Justinas, Domas, Linas and look forward to making their product a production reality. Our team will begin the integration into the UBCO technology eco-system and supply chain with our goal to be ex production by June 2020.

FRX1 will have its debut in the US at this month’s AIM Expo in Columbus, Ohio.

Timothy Allan

UBCO Investment Update

Investment Update

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UBCO’s public offer ticks over $2 million.

UBCO are excited to announce that their current capital raise with Snowball Effect, has recently ticked over the $2 million mark, thanks to over 140 investors.

UBCO has partnered with Snowball Effect to raise a total of $2.5 million for the next stage of their development. The offer went live on March 20th and they have now ticked over the $2 million mark thanks to the support of over 140 investors.

Since their last capital raise in early 2017, UBCO has established a US-based office in Oregon, launched their road legal 2×2, and grown revenue to $3m (last 12 months).

UBCO will use the fresh equity capital being raised to fund new market expansion, launching into Europe in 2019, as well as supporting sales growth and product development.

“This is an incredibly exciting time for UBCO,” says UBCO CEO and Managing Director, Timothy Allan.

“We’ve been seeing growth in all our markets, and are looking forward to launching into the EU. The 2×2 has previously been displayed at the National Ploughing Championships in Ireland and there is now a fleet of off-road 2×2’s available to hire in the EU thanks to Electric Wheels Hire. So we are already gaining traction, and can’t wait for our official launch into the market later this year.”

"We are very thankful for the support we are receiving through our Snowball listing, and are excited to see where it takes us."

As for the success UBCO are seeing with their capital round, Timothy says, “We are very thankful for the support we are receiving through our Snowball listing, and are excited to see where it takes us.”

Simeon Burnett, Snowball Effect’s CEO & Co-founder, has been coordinating the public listing alongside UBCO and is pleased with the results.

“UBCO has received excellent interest and investment from experienced investors – they’ve been impressed with the progress that UBCO has been able to make to date, particularly in the US market, and clearly see the potential of the product globally as the EV market evolves.”

UBCO’s public offer is open until the 20th of April, with a max target of $2.5 million, so there is still time to invest if you want to get behind this kiwi innovation.

Invest in UBCO

Welcome Robin Fiore

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New Appointment Puts UBCO on the Road to US Growth

New Zealand-born startup UBCO, creators of the original 2×2 Electric Utility Bike, have appointed ex-Honda sales executive Robin Fiore to help lead their push into the US market. Read More

The Domino’s Effect

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UBCO Tests its Performance in the Urban Jungle.

The UBCO 2×2 Electric Utility Vehicle was originally developed to be a surefooted EV replacement for the 2-stroke farm bike, but thanks to Domino’s Pizza in New Zealand, it is being put through its paces in a very different environment.

Domino’s has purchased three UBCO 2×2 vehicles for a trial to see if they meet the performance requirements to be part of their delivery bike fleet, navigating the congested and sometimes chaotic terrain of the Auckland, Taupo and Queenstown CBDs.

“Ontime delivery is critical to the Domino’s brand and we’re excited to see if UBCO can deliver,” says Domino’s NZ General Manager Cameron Toomey – “so far our delivery team are loving the bikes and they’ve exceeded our expectations,” he said.

Toomey says that he was attracted to the UBCO 2×2 after seeing an article about them in an inflight magazine and thought they ticked the boxes for Domino’s.

“We liked that it was a created by a New Zealand company and the bike was quiet, environmentally friendly and offered increased safety for our drivers.

“Safety is the number one factor for us at Domino’s – being more of a motorbike than a scooter, with two-wheel drive plus a low centre of gravity, the UBCO 2×2 has more power and greatly increased stability for our drivers.

“Plus, many of our deliveries are made at night and we need to be respectful of our neighbours, so the UBCO being ‘whisper quiet’ is a definite plus for us,” he said.

In terms of reliability Toomey says that the UBCO 2x2s has proven themselves to be very reliable as well as cheap to run in the first two months of the trial. He plans to buy more to expand the trial in the short term.

“I think that UBCO definitely has a place in our fleet and we’re just assessing how big a place that will be.”

Meanwhile UBCO is also currently in trials with two large national delivery fleets in New Zealand.

“We’re very excited to get the feedback from these trials and are more than confident they’ll pass with flying colours,” UBCO CEO Timothy Allan says.

“Our product range supports a wide range of applications and we are passionate about providing a complete solution to all our customers, from individual users to Fleet Managers,” he said.

The UBCO 2×2 brings a number of distinct advantages to the delivery sector: coming pre-built with accessory lugs for panniers and storage boxes; they’re incredibly sure-footed with a motor in both wheels, no clutch, drivetrain, emissions, or noise; and they’re digitally connected to monitor progress and route, with services delivered through the UBCO API interface.

They also have an impressive 120km max range on a single charge, and with an easy battery swap can cope with the multiple destinations required. Domino’s are also keeping an additional battery at each site, extending the range in case of high workload.

And the 2×2’s designation as a moped, means that it can be driven on a standard car license, with no requirement for a special motorcycle license.

“The UBCO 2×2 is uniquely capable for use as a delivery vehicle. It’s incredibly efficient to run, strong and reliable,” says Allan.

“They were designed to give the kiwi number-8-wire warrior the perfect platform to perform any job around the farm, but those same attributes are giving this bike an advantage in the CBD as well,” he said.

UBCO has also partnered with Snowball Effect to raise capital for the next stage of company development, focused on existing shareholders and a small group of potential new wholesale investors. The offer is now open and continues until the end of February.

Since their last capital raise in early 2017, UBCO has established an Oregon (US) based office, launched their road legal 2×2, and grown revenue to $3m (last 12 months).

The company will use the fresh equity capital being raised to fund new market expansion, launching in Europe in 2019, as well as supporting sales growth and product development.

“This is an incredibly exciting time for UBCO,” Allan said.

“And we’re hoping that we can add the domino effect to the snowball effect in the very near future,” he said.

Ubco takes Wellington Gold

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Ubco is proud to announce that we have been awarded a Wellington Gold Award in the Discovering Gold category, celebrating recent R&D projects. The Wellington Gold Awards celebrate the excellence and enterprise of business in the Wellington Region, and it is an honour to be held to such a high standard alongside other stellar businesses. Read More

NZ HERALD: Electric bike maker starts first order

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Bay of Plenty-based electric off-road bike maker Ubco has begun assembling, testing and shipping its first production models to meet pre-order and dealer demand in New Zealand and Australia.

The award-winning startup, which was co-founded by Whakatane-based Antony Clyde and his partner Daryl Neal in Wellington, is also seeking $1.5 million to $2.5 million in second stage funding from the Bay’s early stage funding group Enterprise Angels. Read More

IDEALOG: Eco-friendly e-bike to be unleashed on Kiwi farms—and elsewhere

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The rural-friendly e-bike 2×2 to be released by Christmas. Not only is the bike hardy and suitable, but it’s also economical.

A New Zealand-made electric farm bike, which can travel 100km on 60 cents-worth of power, as well as charge a smart phone, iPad or power tools, should be on the market by Christmas, says its developer.

Electric bike specialist Anthony Clyde, one of the designers of the Ubco utility bike, says electric bikes are ideal for farm work as they are quiet (so they don’t disturb livestock), light (so they can be lifted over fences), strong (it can carry loads up to 200kg) and don’t have drive chains or clutches to cause maintenance problems. Read More

NZ HERALD: Sparks fly over new Kiwi electric farm bike

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The Ubco 2×2 electric farm bike will be in production by Christmas with initial marketing aimed at New Zealand and Australia. Strong international interest means the company will bring forward plans to sell into North America, said Timothy Allan, managing director of Tauranga’s Locus Research.

Locus is a co-investor in Ubco and works closely with the bike’s developers Anthony Clyde, based near Whakatane, and Daryl Neal from Wellington. Read More


By | Featured, Press
New Zealand has been slow to adopt the electric bike revolution that is sweeping the globe but a couple of keen Kiwis (and a Canadian) are using their ingenuity to create e-bikes with a difference.

Anthony Clyde has had a varied background that included an unfinished degree in product development, importing semi-precious jewellery from India and writing a script for a short film that was selected for the Sundance Film Festival. In 2005 he had a dream about making electric bikes and has been focused on them ever since. Read More